Conditionals are, well, conditional statements. Basically, what that means is that you have a block of code that only executes when a certain condition is met.
In Lua, we only have one type: If statements, although they are further split into if, elseif, and else statements.
If statements work off of boolean logic. You may remember booleans being mentioned in a previous lesson. Exactly how boolean logic works will be gone over soon, but first, we'll go over if statements.